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How to Write Research Paper on Jose Rizal

 

How to start a research paper on Jose Rizal

On starting a research paper about Jose Rizal, there are a lot of things to take into account. The initial step is to research who is Jose Rizal. A brief summary of the information you collected about Jose Rizal should be written along with the points you wish to put emphasis in.

As a summary, Jose Rizal is the Philippine national hero who gave his life for the freedom of the Filipino people during the Spanish regime in the Philippines. He was a multi-talented man since he was able to draw, paint, and was good at sports, especially in Arnis (a Filipino sport which uses two wooden sticks – pair – in a fight, the equivalent of fencing in western terms), excelled in academics, was a teacher, doctor, agriculturalist, and many more.

One can write the above as an introduction as well and after gathering all the necessary data, it is now time to outline them. Make sure you are able to categorize each data found properly so that making the context of your essay would be easy and sufficient.

Typically, a person would find a thesis statement first before writing an outline; however, this process is interchangeable so if you have not found your thesis statement yet, the better organized the files are, the better it is for the students to find out what they wish to discuss in the essay.

Once both the thesis statement and the outline are done, then the next step is to write a brief but detailed introduction about Jose Rizal and then the rest follows.

Example of an outline

In general, an outline is a way of properly arranging and developing the writer’s ideas. Its general purpose is to help the student organize his or her paper and see if each of the ideas are able to connect with each other.

It is important to keep each of the ideas listed in the outline short since the longer contents or the detailed contents must be written in the body and that the outline should stick to the main point of the essay. Below is a sample outline of what you can write about Jose Rizal:

  • INTRODUCTION: Background and Thesis Statement

BODY

  • First supporting paragraph: Life of Rizal
  • Academic achievements
  • Other achievements
  • Second supporting paragraph: Rizal as a Professional
  • As a doctor
  • As an agriculturalist
  • Third supporting paragraph: Rizal as a Hero
  • Novels explained
  • Death at Bagumbayan

How to write an introduction

The introduction of the student’s essay about Jose Rizal should contain a brief history of his life in order to give the readers some insight about the topic. The introduction is crucial to the essay since this is the part where they will either be able to catch the reader’s attention or not at all. Here are some tips on how to make the introduction:

  • The student should introduce the topic in the way that the readers will be interested. Give them some interesting facts about Jose Rizal, such as his full name being Dr. Jose Protacia Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda.
  • The reason why the topic was chosen should also be stated in the introduction since this will give the readers an overview of the writer’s personal reason in writing the piece.
  • The words should be chosen carefully. Try not to make the essay indirect, make it as brief as possible and use words which all the readers would understand.
  • An introduction should preferably only be one paragraph alone and not more than that since a long introduction may have the tendency for the readers to get bored of reading the essay or lose track from its original goal.
  • It is advisable that the introduction should be correlated to the thesis statement as much as possible. Catchy but still on point.

How to write a thesis statement

The thesis statement will be the center topic for all the subsequent supporting paragraphs. It is usually composed of one to two sentences which state the topic to be discussed in the research paper.

The entirety of the research paper will depend on the thesis statement and all arguments, and information presented will need to define and support what the thesis statement is.

Example of a thesis statement for a research paper on Jose Rizal

Jose Rizal highly excelled in everything he did, but amidst all his achievement, his patriotism and his efforts in bringing sovereignty from Spanish regime are what made him a true national hero.

Example of an introduction

Ever wondered what it took to be a national hero? For some of us, it means to be a soldier and save the lives of other people; however, there are other more peaceful means in achieving this status as exhibited by the national hero, Jose Rizal. Jose Rizal highly excelled in everything he did, but amidst all his achievement, his patriotism and his efforts in bringing sovereignty from Spanish regime through peaceful means are what made him a true national hero.

How to write body paragraphs for a research paper on Jose Rizal

The body paragraphs will contain the supporting sentences which are included in the initial outline. Ideas, data, or any other information will be elaborated in this part of the essay. It is important to effectively write this since, in a sense, the body paragraphs are the bread and butter of the entire essay.

Tips on body writing

  • The essay writer should use credible sources in order to convince the readers of the legitimacy of the piece. It is important that all research materials are factual, especially in an essay involving people, from what they achieved down to the spelling of their name.
  • The points should be mentioned so that no ideas will be left behind and be able to contribute to the efficiency of the Jose Rizal essay.
  • Be sensitive about what to write. Try to deviate from writing about religion or culture as some readers may view the essay in a negative perspective such as being racist and whatnot. An example of this is mentioning Jose Rizal’s nationality and making a comment about it.
  • The topics should be elaborated properly so that the readers will be able to understand the main point.
  • Making an essay about Jose Rizal or any nationalistic hero should be devoid of errors. Facts or any other data related to making this essay should not be opinionated unless asked for and that the topic(s) should be well focused on.

Example of the 1st body paragraph

Jose Rizal was an excellent student, both in physical activity and academic activity. He was able to draw, paint, and sketch at the tender age of seven and landed a spot in one of the top university in the Philippines when he was in college. He even had more than two degrees, one of which is being a doctor and later on having the specialty of being an ophthalmologist for the sake of his mother.

Example of the 2nd body paragraph

As a professional, Rizal devoted his time and effort to help out people. As a doctor, he cured the sick and performed surgery on their eyes with his mother as his first patient when he found out she went blind. He was also known to have set up some clinics in parts of Hong Kong and made sure that treatment was affordable for his patients.
He was also an agriculturalist, creating a haven for citizens the Rizal Park where a vast amount of greens grew.

Example of the 3rd body paragraph

Jose Rizal was dubbed as a national hero for various reasons; however, the most prominent reason being his peaceful means of achieving peace for his nation. Through his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, he was able to ignite the passion of his men to fight for their country’s freedom through propagandas and reforms instead of violence.

How to finish a research paper on Jose Rizal: Tips on conclusion writing

The conclusion will mark the end of the research paper. Any paper will not be completed without a brief conclusion that will act as a summary of a paper. This part of the paper will determine if the thesis statement was properly supported or proven.

  • A brief summary should be given for all the ideas mentioned in the research.
  • An opinion should be given at the end seeing that the essay calls for why Jose Rizal is a hero.
  • Use a quotation from the topic written. It can also be from a famous person as long as it is related to the topic.
  • Try to leave a question for future researchers to answer or have readers want for more reading of future essays that will be related.
  • Make it as short as possible. Around 2 to 3 sentences but never make it lack any substance.

Example of a conclusion

Jose Rizal lived a life full of achievements, from an excellent academician to a savior of a doctor, and even as an artist through his work with the park he made; however, amidst all these talents, Jose Rizal was a true patriot. A real comrade in arms, and a true national Filipino hero.

Research paper revision

Try to consult the research paper with peers. They could make sure that the paper is on point or even a professor for better validation.

Be mindful of grammatical and spelling errors as well since even if one is able to get the main point across, the improper means of communicating the message about Jose Rizal in the essay would not understand nor appreciated and will just be brushed off as just another typical essay.

"Laong Laan" redirects here. For the railway station, see Laong Laan (PNR station).

This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Mercado and the second or maternal family name is Alonso Realonda.

José Rizal
BornJosé Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda[1]
June 19, 1861[2]
Calamba, Laguna, Spanish Philippines[2]
DiedDecember 30, 1896(1896-12-30) (aged 35)[3]
Bagumbayan, Manila, Spanish Philippines[3]
Cause of deathExecution by firing squad
MonumentsLuneta Park, Manila,
Calamba, Laguna,
Daet, Camarines Norte,
Carson, California
Other namesPepe, Jose (nicknames)[4][5]
Alma materAteneo Municipal de Manila, University of Santo Tomas, Universidad Central de Madrid
OrganizationLa Solidaridad, La Liga Filipina
Spouse(s)Josephine Bracken (1896)[6]
Parent(s)Francisco Mercado Rizal (father)
Teodora Alonso Realonda (mother)
Signature

José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda,[7] widely known as José Rizal (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse riˈsal]; June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain.

He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to Philippine independence.

He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines and has been recommended to be so honored by an officially empaneled National Heroes Committee. However, no law, executive order or proclamation has been enacted or issued officially proclaiming any Filipino historical figure as a national hero.[8] He was the author of the novels Noli Me Tángere[9] and El filibusterismo,[10] and a number of poems and essays.[11][12]

Early life

José Rizal was born in 1861 to Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonso in the town of Calamba in Laguna province. He had nine sisters and one brother. His parents were leaseholders of a hacienda and an accompanying rice farm by the Dominicans. Both their families had adopted the additional surnames of Rizal and Realonda in 1849, after Governor General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa decreed the adoption of Spanish surnames among the Filipinos for census purposes (though they already had Spanish names).

Like many families in the Philippines, the Rizals were of mixed origin. José's patrilineal lineage could be traced back to Fujian in China through his father's ancestor Lam-Co, a Chinese merchant who immigrated to the Philippines in the late 17th century.[13][14][note 1][15] Lam-Co traveled to Manila from Amoy, China, possibly to avoid the famine or plague in his home district, and more probably to escape the Manchu invasion. He finally decided to stay in the islands as a farmer. In 1697, to escape the bitter anti-Chinese prejudice that existed in the Philippines, he converted to Catholicism, changed his name to Domingo Mercado and married the daughter of Chinese friend Augustin Chin-co. On his mother's side, Rizal's ancestry included Chinese, Japanese and Tagalog blood. His mother's lineage can be traced to the affluent Florentina family of Chinese mestizo families originating in Baliuag, Bulacan.[16] José Rizal also had scant Spanish ancestry. His grandfather was a half Spaniard engineer named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo. Rizal even had Negrito ancestors.[17]

From an early age, José showed a precocious intellect. He learned the alphabet from his mother at 3, and could read and write at age 5.[14] Upon enrolling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, he dropped the last three names that made up his full name, on the advice of his brother, Paciano and the Mercado family, thus rendering his name as "José Protasio Rizal". Of this, he later wrote: "My family never paid much attention [to our second surname Rizal], but now I had to use it, thus giving me the appearance of an illegitimate child!"[18] This was to enable him to travel freely and disassociate him from his brother, who had gained notoriety with his earlier links to Filipino priests Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora (popularly known as Gomburza) who had been accused and executed for treason.

Despite the name change, José, as "Rizal" soon distinguished himself in poetry writing contests, impressing his professors with his facility with Castilian and other foreign languages, and later, in writing essays that were critical of the Spanish historical accounts of the pre-colonial Philippine societies. Indeed, by 1891, the year he finished his El Filibusterismo, this second surname had become so well known that, as he writes to another friend, "All my family now carry the name Rizal instead of Mercado because the name Rizal means persecution! Good! I too want to join them and be worthy of this family name..."[18]

Education

Rizal first studied under Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Biñan, Laguna, before he was sent to Manila.[19] As to his father's request, he took the entrance examination in Colegio de San Juan de Letran but he then enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and graduated as one of the nine students in his class declared sobresaliente or outstanding. He continued his education at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila to obtain a land surveyor and assessor's degree, and at the same time at the University of Santo Tomas where he did take up a preparatory course in law.[20] Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he decided to switch to medicine at the medical school of Santo Tomas specializing later in ophthalmology.

Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano, he traveled alone to Madrid, Spain in May 1882 and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine. He also attended medical lectures at the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg. In Berlin, he was inducted as a member of the Berlin Ethnological Society and the Berlin Anthropological Society under the patronage of the famous pathologistRudolf Virchow. Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April 1887 before the Anthropological Society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language. He left Heidelberg a poem, "A las flores del Heidelberg", which was both an evocation and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values between East and West.

At Heidelberg, the 25-year-old Rizal, completed in 1887 his eye specialization under the renowned professor, Otto Becker. There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope (invented by Hermann von Helmholtz) to later operate on his own mother's eye. From Heidelberg, Rizal wrote his parents: "I spend half of the day in the study of German and the other half, in the diseases of the eye. Twice a week, I go to the bierbrauerie, or beerhall, to speak German with my student friends." He lived in a Karlstraße boarding house then moved to Ludwigsplatz. There, he met Reverend Karl Ullmer and stayed with them in Wilhelmsfeld, where he wrote the last few chapters of Noli Me Tángere.

Rizal was a polymath, skilled in both science and the arts. He painted, sketched, and made sculptures and woodcarving. He was a prolific poet, essayist, and novelist whose most famous works were his two novels, Noli Me Tángere and its sequel, El filibusterismo.[note 2][9] These social commentaries during the Spanish colonization of the country formed the nucleus of literature that inspired peaceful reformists and armed revolutionaries alike. Rizal was also a polyglot, conversant in twenty-two languages.[note 3][note 4][21][22]

Rizal's multifacetedness was described by his German friend, Dr. Adolf Bernhard Meyer, as "stupendous."[note 5] Documented studies show him to be a polymath with the ability to master various skills and subjects.[21][23][23][24] He was an ophthalmologist, sculptor, painter, educator, farmer, historian, playwright and journalist. Besides poetry and creative writing, he dabbled, with varying degrees of expertise, in architecture, cartography, economics, ethnology, anthropology, sociology, dramatics, martial arts, fencing and pistol shooting. He was also a Freemason, joining Acacia Lodge No. 9 during his time in Spain and becoming a Master Mason in 1884.

Personal life, relationships and ventures

José Rizal's life is one of the most documented of 19th century Filipinos due to the vast and extensive records written by and about him.[25] Almost everything in his short life is recorded somewhere, being himself a regular diarist and prolific letter writer, much of the material having survived. His biographers, however, have faced difficulty in translating his writings because of Rizal's habit of switching from one language to another.

They drew largely from his travel diaries with their insights of a young Asian encountering the West for the first time. They included his later trips, home and back again to Europe through Japan and the United States,[26] and, finally, through his self-imposed exile in Hong Kong.

Shortly after he graduated from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila (now Ateneo de Manila University), Rizal (who was then 16 years old) and a friend, Mariano Katigbak, came to visit Rizal's maternal grandmother in Tondo, Manila. Mariano brought along his sister, Segunda Katigbak, a 14-year-old Batangueña from Lipa, Batangas. It was the first time they met and Rizal described Segunda as "rather short, with eyes that were eloquent and ardent at times and languid at others, rosy–cheeked, with an enchanting and provocative smile that revealed very beautiful teeth, and the air of a sylph; her entire self diffused a mysterious charm." His grandmother's guests were mostly college students and they knew that Rizal had skills in painting. They suggested that Rizal should make a portrait of Segunda. He complied reluctantly and made a pencil sketch of her. Unfortunately for him, Katigbak was engaged to Manuel Luz.[27]

From December 1891 to June 1892, Rizal lived with his family in Number 2 of Rednaxela Terrace, Mid-levels, Hong Kong Island. Rizal used 5 D'Aguilar Street, Central district, Hong Kong Island, as his ophthalmologist clinic from 2 pm to 6 pm. This period of his life included his recorded affections of which nine were identified. They were Gertrude Beckett of Chalcot Crescent, London, wealthy and high-minded Nelly Boustead of the English and Iberian merchant family, last descendant of a noble Japanese family Seiko Usui (affectionately called O-Sei-san), his earlier friendship with Segunda Katigbak, Leonor Valenzuela, and eight-year romantic relationship with a distant cousin, Leonor Rivera (popularly thought to be the inspiration for the character of María Clara in Noli me tangere).

Affair

In one recorded fall from grace he succumbed to the temptation of a 'lady of the camellias'. The writer, Maximo Viola, a friend of Rizal's, was alluding to Dumas's 1848 novel, La dame aux camelias, about a man who fell in love with a courtesan. While the affair was on record, there was no account in Viola's letter whether it was more than one-night and if it was more a business transaction than an amorous affair.[28][29][note 6]

Association with Leonor Rivera

See also: Leonor Rivera

Leonor Rivera is thought to be the inspiration for the character of Maria Clara in Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo.[30] Rivera and Rizal first met in Manila when Rivera was only 14 years old. When Rizal left for Europe on May 3, 1882, Rivera was 16 years of age. Their correspondence began when Rizal left a poem for Rivera saying farewell.[31]

The correspondence between Rivera and Rizal kept Rizal focused on his studies in Europe. They employed codes in their letters because Rivera's mother did not favor Rizal. A letter from Mariano Katigbak dated June 27, 1884, referred to Rivera as Rizal's "betrothed". Katigbak described Rivera as having been greatly affected by Rizal's departure, frequently sick because of insomnia.

When Rizal returned to the Philippines on August 5, 1887, Rivera and her family had moved back to Dagupan, Pangasinan. Rizal was forbidden by his father Francisco Mercado to see Rivera in order to avoid putting the Rivera family in danger because at the time Rizal was already labeled by the criollo elite as a filibustero or subversive[31] because of his novel Noli Me Tángere. Rizal wanted to marry Rivera while he was still in the Philippines because of Rivera's uncomplaining fidelity. Rizal asked permission from his father one more time before his second departure from the Philippines. The meeting never happened. In 1888, Rizal stopped receiving letters from Rivera for a year, although Rizal kept sending letters to Rivera. The reason for Rivera's year of silence was the connivance between Rivera's mother and the Englishman named Henry Kipping, a railway engineer who fell in love with Rivera and was favored by Rivera's mother.[31][32] The news of Leonor Rivera's marriage to Kipping devastated Rizal.

His European friends kept almost everything he gave them, including doodlings on pieces of paper. In the home of a Spanish liberal, Pedro Ortiga y Pérez, he left an impression that was to be remembered by his daughter, Consuelo. In her diary, she wrote of a day Rizal spent there and regaled them with his wit, social graces, and sleight-of-hand tricks. In London, during his research on Antonio de Morga's writings, he became a regular guest in the home of Reinhold Rost of the British Museum who referred to him as "a gem of a man."[25][note 7] The family of Karl Ullmer, pastor of Wilhelmsfeld, and the Blumentritts saved even buttonholes and napkins with sketches and notes. They were ultimately bequeathed to the Rizal family to form a treasure trove of memorabilia.

Relationship with Josephine Bracken

Further information: Josephine Bracken

In February 1895, Rizal, 33, met Josephine Bracken, an Irish woman from Hong Kong, when she accompanied her blind adoptive father, George Taufer, to have his eyes checked by Rizal.[33] After frequent visits, Rizal and Bracken fell in love with each other. They applied to marry but, because of Rizal's reputation from his writings and political stance, the local priest Father Obach would only hold the ceremony if Rizal could get permission from the Bishop of Cebu. He was unable to obtain an ecclesiastical marriage because he would not return to Catholicism.[6]

After accompanying her father to Manila on her return to Hong Kong, and before heading back to Dapitan to live with Rizal, Josephine introduced herself to members of Rizal's family in Manila. His mother suggested a civil marriage, which she believed to be a lesser sacrament but less sinful to Rizal's conscience than making any sort of political retraction in order to gain permission from the Bishop.[34] Rizal and Josephine lived as husband and wife in a common-law marriage in Talisay in Dapitan. The couple had a son who lived only for a few hours after Josephine suffered a miscarriage; Rizal named him after his father Francisco.[35]

In Brussels and Spain (1890–92)

In 1890, Rizal, 29, left Paris for Brussels as he was preparing for the publication of his annotations of Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (1609). He lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters, Catherina and Suzanna, who had a niece Suzanna ("Thil"), age 16. Historian Gregorio F. Zaide states that Rizal had "his romance with Suzanne Jacoby, 45, the petite niece of his landladies." Belgian Pros Slachmuylders, however, believed that Rizal had a romance with the 17-year-old niece, Suzanna Thil, as his other liaisons were all with young women.[36] He found records clarifying their names and ages.

Rizal's Brussels stay was short-lived; he moved to Madrid, giving the young Suzanna a box of chocolates. She wrote to him in French: "After your departure, I did not take the chocolate. The box is still intact as on the day of your parting. Don’t delay too long writing us because I wear out the soles of my shoes for running to the mailbox to see if there is a letter from you. There will never be any home in which you are so loved as in that in Brussels, so, you little bad boy, hurry up and come back…"[36] In 2007, Slachmuylders' group arranged for an historical marker honoring Rizal to be placed at the house.[36]

The content of Rizal's writings changed considerably in his two most famous novels, Noli Me Tángere, published in Berlin in 1887, and El Filibusterismo, published in Ghent in 1891. For the latter, he used funds borrowed from his friends. These writings angered both the Spanish colonial elite and many educated Filipinos due to their symbolism. They are critical of Spanish friars and the power of the Church. Rizal's friend Ferdinand Blumentritt, an Austria-Hungary-born professor and historian, wrote that the novel's characters were drawn from real life and that every episode can be repeated on any day in the Philippines.[37]

Blumentritt was the grandson of the Imperial Treasurer at Vienna in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire and a staunch defender of the Catholic faith. This did not dissuade him from writing the preface of El filibusterismo after he had translated Noli Me Tángere into German. As Blumentritt had warned, these books resulted in Rizal's being prosecuted as the inciter of revolution. He was eventually tried by the military, convicted and executed. Teaching the natives where they stood brought about an adverse reaction, as the Philippine Revolution of 1896 took off virulently thereafter.

As leader of the reform movement of Filipino students in Spain, Rizal contributed essays, allegories, poems, and editorials to the Spanish newspaper La Solidaridad in Barcelona (in this case Rizal used a pen name, "Dimasalang", "Laong Laan" and "May Pagasa"). The core of his writings centers on liberal and progressive ideas of individual rights and freedom; specifically, rights for the Filipino people. He shared the same sentiments with members of the movement: that the Philippines is battling, in Rizal's own words, "a double-faced Goliath"—corrupt friars and bad government. His commentaries reiterate the following agenda:[note 8]

  • That the Philippines be made a province of Spain (The Philippines was a province of New Spain – now Mexico, administered from Mexico city from 1565 to 1821. From 1821 to 1898 it was administered directly from Spain.)
  • Representation in the Cortes
  • Filipino priests instead of Spanish friars – Augustinians, Dominicans, and Franciscans – in parishes and remote sitios
  • Freedom of assembly and speech
  • Equal rights before the law (for both Filipino and Spanish plaintiffs)

The colonial authorities in the Philippines did not favor these reforms. Such Spanish intellectuals as Morayta, Unamuno, Pi y Margall, and others did endorse them.

Wenceslao Retana, a political commentator in Spain, had slighted Rizal by writing an insulting article in La Epoca, a newspaper in Madrid. He implied that the family and friends of Rizal were evicted from their lands in Calamba for not having paid their due rents. The incident (when Rizal was ten) stemmed from an accusation that Rizal's mother, Teodora, tried to poison the wife of a cousin, but she said she was trying to help. With the approval of the Church prelates, and without a hearing, she was ordered to prison in Santa Cruz in 1871. She was made to walk the ten miles (16 km) from Calamba. She was released after two-and-a-half years of appeals to the highest court.[24] In 1887, Rizal wrote a petition on behalf of the tenants of Calamba, and later that year led them to speak out against the friars' attempts to raise rent. They initiated a litigation which resulted in the Dominicans' evicting them from their homes, including the Rizal family. General Valeriano Weyler had the buildings on the farm torn down.

Upon reading the article, Rizal sent a representative to challenge Retana to a duel. Retana published a public apology and later became one of Rizal's biggest admirers, writing Rizal's most important biography, Vida y Escritos del José Rizal.[38][note 9]

Return to Philippines (1892–96)

Exile in Dapitan

Upon his return to Manila in 1892, he formed a civic movement called La Liga Filipina. The league advocated these moderate social reforms through legal means, but was disbanded by the governor. At that time, he had already been declared an enemy of the state by the Spanish authorities because of the publication of his novel.

Rizal was implicated in the activities of the nascent rebellion and in July 1892, was deported to Dapitan in the province of Zamboanga, a peninsula of Mindanao.[39] There he built a school, a hospital and a water supply system, and taught and engaged in farming and horticulture.[citation needed]Abaca, then the vital raw material for cordage and which Rizal and his students planted in the thousands, was a memorial.[citation needed]

The boys' school, which taught in Spanish, and included English as a foreign language (considered a prescient if unusual option then) was conceived by Rizal and antedated Gordonstoun with its aims of inculcating resourcefulness and self-sufficiency in young men.[citation needed] They would later enjoy successful lives as farmers and honest government officials.[citation needed] One, a Muslim, became a datu, and another, José Aseniero, who was with Rizal throughout the life of the school, became Governor of Zamboanga.[40][citation needed]

In Dapitan, the Jesuits mounted a great effort to secure his return to the fold led by Fray Francisco de Paula Sánchez, his former professor, who failed in his mission. The task was resumed by Fray Pastells, a prominent member of the Order. In a letter to Pastells, Rizal sails close to the ecumenism familiar to us today.[41]

We are entirely in accord in admitting the existence of God. How can I doubt His when I am convinced of mine. Who so recognizes the effect recognizes the cause. To doubt God is to doubt one's own conscience, and in consequence, it would be to doubt everything; and then what is life for? Now then, my faith in God, if the result of a ratiocination may be called faith, is blind, blind in the sense of knowing nothing. I neither believe nor disbelieve the qualities which many attribute to Him; before theologians' and philosophers' definitions and lucubrations of this ineffable and inscrutable being I find myself smiling. Faced with the conviction of seeing myself confronting the supreme Problem, which confused voices seek to explain to me, I cannot but reply: ‘It could be’; but the God that I foreknow is far more grand, far more good: Plus Supra!...I believe in (revelation); but not in revelation or revelations which each religion or religions claim to possess. Examining them impartially, comparing them and scrutinizing them, one cannot avoid discerning the human 'fingernail' and the stamp of the time in which they were written... No, let us not make God in our image, poor inhabitants that we are of a distant planet lost in infinite space. However, brilliant and sublime our intelligence may be, it is scarcely more than a small spark which shines and in an instant is extinguished, and it alone can give us no idea of that blaze, that conflagration, that ocean of light. I believe in revelation, but in that living revelation which surrounds us on every side, in that voice, mighty, eternal, unceasing, incorruptible, clear, distinct, universal as is the being from whom it proceeds, in that revelation which speaks to us and penetrates us from the moment we are born until we die. What books can better reveal to us the goodness of God, His love, His providence, His eternity, His glory, His wisdom? ‘The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his handiwork.[42]

His best friend, professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, kept him in touch with European friends and fellow-scientists who wrote a stream of letters which arrived in Dutch, French, German and English and which baffled the censors, delaying their transmittal. Those four years of his exile coincided with the development of the Philippine Revolution from inception and to its final breakout, which, from the viewpoint of the court which was to try him, suggested his complicity in it.[25] He condemned the uprising, although all the members of the Katipunan had made him their honorary president and had used his name as a cry for war, unity, and liberty.[43]

He is known to making the resolution of bearing personal sacrifice instead of the incoming revolution, believing that a peaceful stand is the best way to avoid further suffering in the country and loss of Filipino lives. In Rizal's own words, "I consider myself happy for being able to suffer a little for a cause which I believe to be sacred [...]. I believe further that in any undertaking, the more one suffers for it, the surer its success. If this be fanaticism may God pardon me, but my poor judgment does not see it as such."[44]

In Dapitan, Rizal wrote "Haec Est Sibylla Cumana", a parlor-game for his students, with questions and answers for which a wooden top was used. In 2004, Jean Paul Verstraeten traced this book and the wooden top, as well as Rizal's personal watch, spoon and salter.

Arrest and trial

By 1896, the rebellion fomented by the Katipunan, a militant secret society, had become a full-blown revolution, proving to be a nationwide uprising.[citation needed] Rizal had earlier volunteered his services as a doctor in Cuba and was given leave by Governor-General Ramón Blanco to serve in Cuba to minister to victims of yellow fever. Rizal and Josephine left Dapitan on August 1, 1896, with letter of recommendation from Blanco.

Rizal was arrested en route to Cuba via Spain and was imprisoned in Barcelona on October 6, 1896. He was sent back the same day to Manila to stand trial as he was implicated in the revolution through his association with members of the Katipunan. During the entire passage, he was unchained, no Spaniard laid a hand on him, and had many opportunities to escape but refused to do so.

While imprisoned in Fort Santiago, he issued a manifesto disavowing the current revolution in its present state and declaring that the education of Filipinos and their achievement of a national identity were prerequisites to freedom.

Rizal was tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy, was convicted on all three charges, and sentenced to death. Blanco, who was sympathetic to Rizal, had been forced out of office. The friars, led by then Archbishop of Manila Bernardino Nozaleda, had 'intercalated' Camilo de Polavieja in his stead, as the new Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines after pressuring Queen-Regent Maria Cristina of Spain, thus sealing Rizal's fate.

Execution

Moments before his execution on December 30, 1896, by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army, a backup force of regular Spanish Army troops stood ready to shoot the executioners should they fail to obey orders.[45] The Spanish Army Surgeon General requested to take his pulse: it was normal. Aware of this the sergeant commanding the backup force hushed his men to silence when they began raising "vivas" with the highly partisan crowd of Peninsular and Mestizo Spaniards. His last words were those of Jesus Christ: "consummatum est", – it is finished.[21][46][note 10]

He was secretly buried in Pacò Cemetery in Manila with no identification on his grave. His sister Narcisa toured all possible gravesites and found freshly turned earth at the cemetery with guards posted at the gate. Assuming this could be the most likely spot, there never having any ground burials, she made a gift to the caretaker to mark the site "RPJ", Rizal's initials in reverse.

His undated poem Mi último adiós, believed to have been written a few days before his execution, was hidden in an alcohol stove, which was later handed to his family with his few remaining possessions, including the final letters and his last bequests.[47]:91 During their visit, Rizal reminded his sisters in English, "There is something inside it", referring to the alcohol stove given by the Pardo de Taveras which was to be returned after his execution, thereby emphasizing the importance of the poem. This instruction was followed by another, "Look in my shoes", in which another item was secreted. Exhumation of his remains in August 1898, under American rule, revealed he had been uncoffined, his burial not on sanctified ground granted the 'confessed' faithful, and whatever was in his shoes had disintegrated. And now he is buried in Rizal Monument in Manila.[24]

In his letter to his family he wrote: "Treat our aged parents as you would wish to be treated...Love them greatly in memory of me...December 30, 1896."[25] He gave his family instructions for his burial: "Bury me in the ground. Place a stone and a cross over it. My name, the date of my birth and of my death. Nothing more. If later you wish to surround my grave with a fence, you can do it. No anniversaries."[48]

In his final letter, to Blumentritt – Tomorrow at 7, I shall be shot; but I am innocent of the crime of rebellion. I am going to die with a tranquil conscience.[25] Rizal is believed to be the first Filipino revolutionary whose death is attributed entirely to his work as a writer; and through dissent and civil disobedience enabled him to successfully destroy Spain's moral primacy to rule. He also bequeathed a book personally bound by him in Dapitan to his 'best and dearest friend.' When Blumentritt received it in his hometown Litoměřice (Leitmeritz) he broke down and wept.

Works and writings

Rizal wrote mostly in Spanish, the lingua franca of the Spanish Philippines, though some of his letters (for example Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos) were written in Tagalog. His works have since been translated into a number of languages including Tagalog and English.

Novels and essays

  • Noli Me Tángere, novel, 1887 (literally Latin for 'touch me not', from John 20:17)[49]
  • El Filibusterismo, (novel, 1891), sequel to Noli Me Tángere
  • Alin Mang Lahi("Whate'er the Race"), a Kundiman attributed to Dr. José Rizal[50]
  • The Friars and the Filipinos (Unfinished)
  • Toast to Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo (Speech, 1884), given at Restaurante Ingles, Madrid
  • The Diaries of José Rizal
  • Rizal's Letters is a compendium of Dr. Jose Rizal's letters to his family members, Blumentritt, Fr. Pablo Pastells and other reformers
  • "Come se gobiernan las Filipinas" (Governing the Philippine islands)
  • Filipinas dentro de cien añosessay, 1889–90 (The Philippines a Century Hence)
  • La Indolencia de los Filipinos, essay, 1890 (The indolence of Filipinos)[51]
  • Makamisaunfinished novel
  • Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos, essay, 1889, To the Young Women of Malolos
  • Annotations to Antonio de Moragas, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (essay, 1889, Events in the Philippine Islands)

Poetry

  • A La Juventud Filipina (To The Philippine Youth)
  • El Canto Del Viajero
  • Briayle Crismarl
  • Canto de María Clara
  • Dalit sa Paggawa (Himno Al Trabajo)
  • Felicitación
  • Kundiman (Tagalog)
  • Me Piden Versos
  • Mi primera inspiracion
  • Mi Retiro
  • Mi Ultimo Adiós
  • Por La Educación (Recibe Lustre La Patria)
  • Sa Sanggol na si Jesus
  • To My Muse (A Mi Musa)
  • Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo
  • A Man in Dapitan

Plays

Other works

Rizal also tried his hand at painting and sculpture. His most famous sculptural work was "The Triumph of Science over Death", a clay sculpture of a naked young woman with overflowing hair, standing on a skull while bearing a torch held high. The woman symbolized the ignorance of humankind during the Dark Ages, while the torch she bore symbolized the enlightenment science brings over the whole world. He sent the sculpture as a gift to his dear friend Ferdinand Blumentritt, together with another one named "The Triumph of Death over Life".

The woman is shown trampling the skull, a symbol of death, to signify the victory the humankind achieved by conquering the bane of death through their scientific advancements. The original sculpture is now displayed at the Rizal Shrine Museum at Fort Santiago in Intramuros, Manila. A large replica, made of concrete, stands in front of Fernando Calderón Hall, the building which houses the College of Medicine of the University of the Philippines Manila along Pedro Gil Street in Ermita, Manila.

Reactions after death

Retraction controversy

Several historians report that Rizal retracted his anti-Catholic ideas through a document which stated: "I retract with all my heart whatever in my words, writings, publications and conduct have been contrary to my character as a son of the Catholic Church."[note 11] However, there are doubts of its authenticity given that there is no certificate of Rizal's Catholic marriage to Josephine Bracken.[54] Also there is an allegation that the retraction document was a forgery.[55]

After analyzing six major documents of Rizal, Ricardo Pascual concluded that the retraction document, said to have been discovered in 1935, was not in Rizal's handwriting. Senator Rafael Palma, a former President of the University of the Philippines and a prominent Mason, argued that a retraction is not in keeping with Rizal's character and mature beliefs.[56] He called the retraction story a "pious fraud."[57] Others who deny the retraction are Frank Laubach,[21] a Protestant minister; Austin Coates,[32] a British writer; and Ricardo Manapat, director of the National Archives.[58]

Those who affirm the authenticity of Rizal's retraction are prominent Philippine historians such as Nick Joaquin,[note 12]Nicolas Zafra of UP[59]León María Guerrero III,[note 13]Gregorio Zaide,[61]Guillermo Gómez Rivera, Ambeth Ocampo,[58] John Schumacher,[62] Antonio Molina,[63]Paul Dumol[64] and Austin Craig.[24] They take the retraction document as authentic, having been judged as such by a foremost expert on the writings of Rizal, Teodoro Kalaw (a 33rd degree Mason) and "handwriting experts...known and recognized in our courts of justice", H. Otley Beyer and Dr. José I. Del Rosario, both of UP.[59]

Historians also refer to 11 eyewitnesses when Rizal wrote his retraction, signed a Catholic prayer book, and recited Catholic prayers, and the multitude who saw him kiss the crucifix before his execution. A great grand nephew of Rizal, Fr. Marciano Guzman, cites that Rizal's 4 confessions were certified by 5 eyewitnesses, 10 qualified witnesses, 7 newspapers, and 12 historians and writers including Aglipayan bishops, Masons and anti-clericals.[65] One witness was the head of the Spanish Supreme Court at the time of his notarized declaration and was highly esteemed by Rizal for his integrity.[66]

Because of what he sees as the strength these direct evidence have in the light of the historical method, in contrast with merely circumstantial evidence, UP professor emeritus of history Nicolas Zafra called the retraction "a plain unadorned fact of history."[59] Guzmán attributes the denial of retraction to "the blatant disbelief and stubbornness" of some Masons.[65]

Supporters see in the retraction Rizal's "moral courage...to recognize his mistakes,"[61][note 14] his reversion to the "true faith", and thus his "unfading glory,"[66] and a return to the "ideals of his fathers" which "did not diminish his stature as a great patriot; on the contrary, it increased that stature to greatness."[69] On the other hand, senator Jose Diokno stated, "Surely whether Rizal died as a Catholic or an apostate adds or detracts nothing from his greatness as a Filipino... Catholic or Mason, Rizal is still Rizal – the hero who courted death 'to prove to those who deny our patriotism that we know how to die for our duty and our beliefs'."[70]

"Mi último adiós"

Main article: Mi último adiós

The poem is more aptly titled, "Adiós, Patria Adorada" (literally "Farewell, Beloved Fatherland"), by virtue of logic and literary tradition, the words coming from the first line of the poem itself. It first appeared in print not in Manila but in Hong Kong in 1897, when a copy of the poem and an accompanying photograph came to J. P. Braga who decided to publish it in a monthly journal he edited. There was a delay when Braga, who greatly admired Rizal, wanted a good job of the photograph and sent it to be engraved in London, a process taking well over two months. It finally appeared under 'Mi último pensamiento,' a title he supplied and by which it was known for a few years. Thus, when the Jesuit Balaguer's anonymous account of the retraction and the marriage to Josephine was appearing in Barcelona, no word of the poem's existence reached him in time to revise what he had written. His account was too elaborate that Rizal would have had no time to write "Adiós."

Six years after his death, when the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 was being debated in the United States Congress, Representative Henry Cooper of Wisconsin rendered an English translation of Rizal's valedictory poem capped by the peroration, "Under what clime or what skies has tyranny claimed a nobler victim?"[71] Subsequently, the US Congress passed the bill into law which is now known as the Philippine Organic Act of 1902.[72]

This was a major breakthrough for a US Congress that had yet to grant equal rights to African Americans guaranteed to them in the US Constitution and the Chinese Exclusion Act was still in effect. It created the Philippine legislature, appointed two Filipino delegates to the US Congress, extended the US Bill of Rights to Filipinos, and laid the foundation for an autonomous government. The colony was on its way to independence.[72] The Americans, however, would not sign the bill into law until 1916 and did not recognize Philippine Independence until the Treaty of Manila in 1946—fifty years after Rizal's death.This same poem which has inspired independence activists across the region and beyond was recited (in its Indonesian translation by Rosihan Anwar) by Indonesian soldiers of independence before going into battle.[73]

Later life of Bracken

Josephine Bracken, whom Rizal addressed as his wife on his last day,[74] promptly joined the revolutionary forces in Cavite province, making her way through thicket and mud across enemy lines, and helped reloading spent cartridges at the arsenal in Imus under the revolutionary General Pantaleón García. Imus came under threat of recapture that the operation was moved, with Bracken, to Maragondon, the mountain redoubt in Cavite.[75]

She witnessed the Tejeros Convention prior to returning to Manila and was summoned by the Governor-General, but owing to her stepfather's American citizenship she could not be forcibly deported. She left voluntarily returning to Hong Kong. She later married another Filipino, Vicente Abad, a mestizo acting as agent for the Tabacalera firm in the Philippines. She died of tuberculosis in Hong Kong in March 15, 1902, and was buried at the Happy Valley Cemetery.[75] She was immortalized by Rizal in the last stanza of Mi Ultimo Adios: "Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, my joy...".

Polavieja and Blanco

Polavieja faced condemnation by his countrymen after his return to Spain. While visiting Girona, in Catalonia, circulars were distributed among the crowd bearing Rizal's last verses, his portrait, and the charge that Polavieja was responsible for the loss of the Philippines to Spain.[76] Ramon Blanco later presented his sash and sword to the Rizal family as an apology.[citation needed]

Criticism and controversies

Attempts to debunk legends surrounding Rizal, and the tug of war between free thinker and Catholic, have kept his legacy controversial.

National hero status

The confusion over Rizal's real stance on the Philippine Revolution leads to the sometimes bitter question of his ranking as the nation's premier hero.[77][78] But then again, according to the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) Section Chief Teodoro Atienza, and Filipino historian Ambeth Ocampo, there is no Filipino historical figure, including Rizal, that was officially declared as national hero through law or executive order.[79][80] Although, there were laws and proclamations honoring Filipino heroes.

Made national hero by colonial Americans

Some[who?] suggest that Jose Rizal was made a legislated national hero by the American forces occupying Philippines. In 1901, the American Governor General William Howard Taft suggested that the U.S. sponsored Philippine Commission name Rizal a national hero for Filipinos. Jose Rizal was an ideal candidate, favourable to the American occupiers since he was dead, and non-violent, a favourable quality which, if emulated by Filipinos, would not threaten the American rule or change the status quo of the occupiers of Philippine islands. Rizal did not advocate independence for Philippines either.[81] Subsequently, the US-sponsored commission passed Act No. 346 which set the anniversary of Rizal’s death as a “day of observance.”[82]

Renato Constantino writes Rizal is a "United States-sponsored hero" who was promoted as the greatest Filipino hero during the American colonial period of the Philippines – after Aguinaldo lost the Philippine–American War. The United States promoted Rizal, who represented peaceful political advocacy (in fact, repudiation of violent means in general) instead of more radical figures whose ideas could inspire resistance against American rule. Rizal was selected over Andrés Bonifacio who was viewed "too radical" and Apolinario Mabini who was considered "unregenerate."[83]

Made national hero by Emilio Aguinaldo

On the other hand, numerous sources[84]

José Rizal's baptismal register
Francisco Mercado Rizal (1818–1897)
Rizal's house in Calamba, Laguna.
Rizal, 11 years old, a student at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila
Rednaxela Terrace, where Rizal lived during his self-imposed exile in Hong Kong (photo taken in 2011).
Business Card shows Dr. José Rizal is an Ophthalmologist in Hong Kong
A crayon portrait of Leonor Rivera by José Rizal
Josephine Bracken was Rizal's common-law wife whom he reportedly married shortly before his execution
Leaders of the reform movement in Spain: Left to right: Rizal, del Pilar, and Ponce (c. 1890).
Bust of Padre Guerrico in clay, by Rizal.
Rizal's pencil sketch of Blumentritt.
A photographic record of Rizal's execution in what was then Bagumbayan.
An engraving of the execution of Filipino insurgents at Bagumbayan (now Luneta).
Historical marker of José Rizal's execution site.
José Rizal's original grave at Paco Park in Manila. Slightly renovated and date repainted in English.

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