Essay About Visakhapatnam City

Visakhapatnam   is a major port city on the south east coast of India, it is the second largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the third largest city on the east coast of India after Kolkata and Chennai. It is located 625 kilometres east of the state capital Hyderabad.
The city has developed into a hub for many heavy industries, a major steel plant, and has one of India's largest sea ports and its oldest shipyard. It has the only natural harbour on the east coast of India.
It is also headquarters to the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy. Visakhapatnam is often referred to as The City of Destiny.
Visakhapatnam, often called, is the best tourism destination in Andhra Pradesh. From Lakes to cool Beaches, from beautiful Hill Ranges to Caves and Valleys, Visakhapatnam has them all. The district has many tourism spots that represent the Culture and Heritage of the true India.
The Araku valley, Kailasa Giri , Borra Caves , R K Beach , VUDA Park, Visakha Museum, Submarine Museum , The Indira Gandhi Zoological
Visakhapatnam is a city of cultural & religious diversity. Visakhapatnam contains a number of shopping malls & The City has a 3 famous Multiplex, There are about 35 Movie Theaters in city.
There are 2 stadiums have been used for One Day International matches.
Indira Priyadarshini Stadium   Also known as the Municipal Corporation Stadium,
ACA-VDCA Stadium This stadium is recently named as YS Rajasekhara Reddy Stadium.
There are two five-star hotels, The Taj and The Park, and a full range of other accommodation
Visakhapatnam is considered a centre for education in Andhra Pradesh. There are several primary, high school and college institutions in the city. Apart from state-run schools for the poor, there are many private institutions, missionary schools and colleges.
It has all 3 transport facilities airways, railways, busways
Administrators
The current Collector of the district is Lav Agarwal while the Joint Collector is Pola...

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Visakhapatnam
Vizag, Vizagapatam, Waltair
Metropolis

Top to bottom, left to right: A view of Visakhapatnam and the Bay of Bengal from Kailasagiri Park, Simhachalam Temple, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam Port, the Kursura Submarine Museum, the Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, and Ramakrishna Mission Beach

Nickname(s): The City of Destiny, The Jewel of the East Coast

Visakhapatnam

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Visakhapatnam

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Coordinates: 17°42′15″N83°17′52″E / 17.70417°N 83.29778°E / 17.70417; 83.29778Coordinates: 17°42′15″N83°17′52″E / 17.70417°N 83.29778°E / 17.70417; 83.29778
CountryIndia
StateAndhra Pradesh
DistrictVisakhapatnam
Incorporated (town)1865
Incorporated (city)1979
Government
 • TypeMayor-council
 • BodyGVMC, VUDA
 • MPKambhampati Hari Babu
 • MayorPulusu Janardhana Rao
 • Municipal commissionerM.Hari Narayanan
 • Commissioner of PoliceT.Yoganand, I.P.S.
Area[1]
 • Metropolis540.00 km2 (208.50 sq mi)
 • Metro[2]5,573 km2 (2,152 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Metropolis4,288,113±1, 2,035,922
 • Rank14th
 • Metro[2]5,340,000
Demonym(s)Vizagite
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
PIN530 0XX, 531 1XX
Telephone code+91-891
Vehicle registrationAP 31
Official languageTelugu
Websitewww.gvmc.gov.in

Visakhapatnam (); also known as Vizag () and Waltair () is the largest city and the financial capital[5] of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[6] The city is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy.[7] Its geographical location is amidst the Eastern Ghats and the coast of the Bay of Bengal.[8] It is the most populous city in the state[9][7][10] with a population of 2,035,922 as of 2011, making it the 14th largest city in the country. It is also the 9th most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of 5,340,000.[1][11][12] With an output of $43.5 billion, Visakhapatnam is the ninth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product as of 2016.[13][14][15]

Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, when it was considered a part of the Kalinga Kingdom, and later ruled by the Vengi, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties.[16] Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries with control over the city fluctuating between the Chola Dynasty and the Gajapati Kingdom,[17][18] until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century.[16] Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and by the end of the 18th century it had come under French rule.[17][18] Control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947.

The city is home to the oldest shipyard and the only natural harbour on the east coast of India.[19]Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth-busiest cargo port in India, and the city is home to the headquarters of the Indian Navy'sEastern Command. Visakhapatnam is a major tourist destination and is particularly known for its beaches.[20] It is referred to by many nicknames such asThe City of Destiny and The Jewel of the East Coast.[7] It has been selected as one of the Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. As per the Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings of 2017, it is the third cleanest city in India.[21]

Etymology

The local belief behind the name of the city states, there was a king of 4th century, who on his pilgrimage halted at Lawson's Bay and built a temple dedicated to Vaisakha, which was submerged under the sea, but the name of the temple was got to the settlement. Other such names are, Kulotungapatnam, named by a Chola King, Kulotuna-I; Ishakapatnam, based on a Muslim Saint, Syed Ali Madani (Ishak Madani).[22][23] During the East India Company rule in India, the city was known with the name, Vizagapatam.[24] The suburb Waltair is another such name which was derived from the British colonial name.[7] "Vizagapatam" could also be spelled Visakhapatnam in the West European alphabet. Its shortened form, Vizag was used by the British administrators who were unable to pronounce its long name.[25] It was sometimes called Vizag by locals too, however since independence, people have reverted to calling it by its Indian name of Visakhapatnam.[22]

History

Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century B.C.E. and the city finds mention in ancient texts such as the 4th century B.C.E. writings of Pāṇini and Katyayana. Historically considered part of the Kalinga region,[17][18] it was ruled by the Vengi kingdom and the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties during medieval times.[16] Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries C.E. by the Chola Dynasty king Kulothunga I. Control over the city fluctuated between the Chola Dynasty of Tamil Nadu and the Gajapati Kingdom of Odisha[17][18] until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century.[16] In the 16th century it was conquered by the Mughals. European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city and Visakhapatnam came under French rule at the end of the 18th century.[17][18]

The city was ruled by Andhra Kings of Vengi and Pallavas. The city is named after Sri Vishaka Varma. Legend has it that Radha and Viśakha were born on the same day and were equally beautiful. Sri Vishaka Sakhi is the second most important gopi of the eight main gopis. She carries messages between Radha and Krishna and is the most expert gopi messenger. Local residents believe that an Andhra king built a temple to pay homage to his family deity Viśakha. This is now inundated under sea water near R K Beach. Another theory is that it is named after a woman disciple of Buddha named Viśakha. Later it was ruled by Qutb Shahis, Mughal Empire (between 1689 and 1724), Nizam (1724–1757) and France (1757–1765) before being captured by the British in 1765. European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city and Visakhapatnam came under French rule at the end of the 18th century.[17][18]

The British captured Visakhapatnam after the 1804 Battle of Vizagapatam and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947 which was a part of the Northern Circars.

Buddhist influence

Hindu texts state that during the fifth century BC, the Visakhapatnam region was part of Kalinga territory, which extended to the Godavari River. Relics found in the area also prove the existence of a Buddhist empire in the region. Kalinga later lost the territory to King Ashoka in the bloodiest battle of its time, which prompted Ashoka to embrace Buddhism. Visakhapatnam is surrounded by ancient Buddhist sites, most of which have been excavated recently and illustrate the legacy of Buddhism in the region.[citation needed]

Pavurallakonda

Pavurallakonda ("pigeon hill") is a hillock west of Bhimli, about 24 km (15 mi) from Visakhapatnam. The Buddhist settlement found here is estimated to date back from the first century BC to the second century AD. On the hillock (which overlooks the coastline) are 16 rock-cut cisterns for collecting rainwater. Gopalapatnam, on the Tandava River, is a village surrounded by brick stupas, viharas, pottery and other Buddhist artefacts.[26]

Sankaram

In 1907 British archaeologist Alexander Rea unearthed Sankaram, a 2,000-year-old Buddhist site. The name "Śankaram" derives from the Sangharama (temple or monastery). Located 40 km (25 mi) south of Visakhapatnam, it is known locally as Bojjannakonda and is a significant Buddhist site in Andhra Pradesh. The three major schools of Buddhism (Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana) flourished here. The complex is known for its monolithic stupas, rock-cut caves and brick structures. The primary stupa was initially carved out of rock and covered with bricks. Excavations yielded historic pottery and Satavahana coins from the first century AD. At Lingalakonda, there are also rock-cut monolithic stupas in rows spread over the hill. The vihara was active for about 1,000 years.[citation needed]

Nearby is another Buddhist site, Bojjannakonda, with a number of images of the Buddha carved on the rock face of the caves. At Ligalametta there are hundreds of rock-cut monolithic stupas in rows, spread across the hill. Among other Buddhist attractions are a relic casket, three chaitya halls, votive platforms, stupas and Vajrayana sculptures.[citation needed]

Bavikonda

Bavikonda is an important Buddhist heritage site located on a hill about 15 km, northeast from Visakhapatnam city. Here the Buddhist habitation is noticed on a 16 ha flat terraced area. The Hinayana school of Buddhism was practised at the monastery between the 3rd century B.C. and the 3rd century A.D. Bavikonda has remains of an entire Buddhist complex, comprising 26 structures belonging to three phases. A piece of bone stored in an urn recovered here is believed to belong to the mortal remains of the Buddha. The word Bavikonda in Telugu means "a hill of wells". Fitting its name, Bavikonda is a hill with wells for the collection of rainwater. It is located 15 km (9.3 mi) from Visakhapatnam and is a significant Buddhist site. Excavation carried out from 1982 to 1987 revealed a Buddhist establishment including a mahachaitya embedded with relic caskets,[clarification needed] a large vihara complex, numerous votive stupas, a stone-pillared congregation and rectangular halls and a refectory. Artifacts recovered from the site include Roman and Satavahana coins and pottery dating from the third century BC to the second century AD. A significant finding was a piece of bone (with a large quantity of ash) in an urn, which is believed to be the remains of the Buddha. The Bavikonda site is considered one of the oldest Buddhist sites in Asia. It is a reminder of the Buddhist civilisation which once existed in southern India, and also reminiscent of Borobudur in Indonesia.[27]

Thotlakonda

About 16 km (9.9 mi) from Visakhapatnam is Thotlakonda, a Buddhist complex situated on top of a hill. The Buddhist complex on the Mangamaripeta hilltop, locally known as Totlakonda, lies about 16 km from Visakhapatnam on Visakhapatnam-Bheemili Beach Road. After its discovery (during an aerial survey), the Government of Andhra Pradesh declared the 48 ha site as a protected monument in 1978. Excavations in 1988 to 1992 exposed structural remains and artefacts, classified as Religious, Secular and Civil. These structures include the Stupa, Chaityagrihas, pillared congregation halls, bhandagaras, refectory (bhojanasala), drainage and stone pathways. The site covers an area of 120 acres (49 hectares), and has been declared a protected area by the government of Andhra Pradesh. Excavations have revealed three kinds of structural remains: religious, secular and civil. Structures include a mahastupa, sixteen votive stupas, a stone-pillared congregation hall, eleven rock-cut cisterns, well-paved stone pathways, an apsidalchaitya-griha, three round chaitgya-grihas, two votive platforms, ten viharas and a kitchen complex with three halls and a refectory (dining hall). Apart from the structures, Buddhist treasures excavated include nine Satavahana and five Roman silver coins, terracotta tiles, stucco decorative pieces, sculptured panels, miniature stupa models in stone, Buddha padas depicted with ashtamangala symbols (i.e. the eight auspicious symbols of Swastika, Shrivasta, Nandhyavarta, Vardhamanaka, Bhadrasana, Kalasha, Minyugala and Darpan) and early pottery.[28]

Later history

The territory of Visakhapatnam then came under the Andhra rulers of Vengi, and Chalukyas and Pallavas ruled the land. The region was ruled by the Eastern Ganga king- SuryaVamsa Kshatriyas and the Gajapati kings of Odisha from the 10th century to the 16th centuries AD (when the region came under the Visakhapatnam rulers). Based on archaeological evidence, the Prabhakar and the Eastern Ganga Kings of Odisha built temples in the city in the 11th and 12th centuries. The Mughals ruled the area under the Visakhapatnam Nizam during the late 15th and early 16th centuries. European merchants from France, Holland and the East India Company used the natural port to export tobacco, paddy, coal, iron ore, ivory, muslin and other textile products.

Local legend tells that an Andhra king, on his way to Benares, rested at Visakhapatnam and was so enchanted by its beauty that he ordered a temple to be built in honour of his family deity, Viśakha. Archaeological sources, however, reveal that the temple was probably built between the 11th and 12th centuries by the Cholas. A shipping merchant, Shankarayya Chetty, built one of the mandapams (pillared halls) of the temple. Although it no longer exists (possibly washed away about 100 years ago by a cyclonic storm), elderly residents of Visakhapatnam remember visits to the ancient shrine by their grandparents (although author Ganapatiraju Atchuta Rama Raju denies this).[29]

During the 18th century Visakhapatnam was part of the Northern Circars, a region comprising coastal Andhra and southern coastal Odisha which was first under French control and later British. Visakhapatnam became a district in the Madras Presidency of British India. In September 1804, British and French squadrons fought the naval Battle of Vizagapatam near the harbour. After India's independence it was the largest district in the country and was subsequently divided into the districts of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam.

Part of the city is known by its colonial British name, Waltair; during the colonial era, the city's hub was the Waltair railway station and the surrounding part of the city is still called Waltair.

  • International Fleet Review 2016

Geography

The city is situated between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal.[8] The city coordinates lies between 17.7041 N and 83.2977 E.[3][4]

Climate

Visakhapatnam has a has a tropical wet and dry climate (KöppenAw).[4] The annual mean temperatures ranges between 24.7–30.6 °C (76–87 °F), with the maximum in the month of May and the minimum in January; the minimum temperatures ranges between 20–27 °C (68–81 °F). The highest maximum temperature ever recorded was 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) in 1978, and the lowest was 20.0 °C (68 °F) in 1904. It receives rainfall from the South-west and North-east monsoons[4] and the average annual rainfall recorded is 1,118.8 mm (44.05 in).[30]

Climate data for Visakhapatnam
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)34.8
(94.6)
38.2
(100.8)
40.0
(104)
40.5
(104.9)
45.0
(113)
45.4
(113.7)
41.4
(106.5)
38.8
(101.8)
38.2
(100.8)
37.2
(99)
35.0
(95)
34.0
(93.2)
45.4
(113.7)
Average high °C (°F)28.9
(84)
31.3
(88.3)
33.8
(92.8)
35.3
(95.5)
36.2
(97.2)
35.3
(95.5)
32.9
(91.2)
32.7
(90.9)
32.5
(90.5)
31.7
(89.1)
30.4
(86.7)
28.9
(84)
32.5
(90.5)
Average low °C (°F)18.0
(64.4)
19.9
(67.8)
23.0
(73.4)
26.1
(79)
27.7
(81.9)
27.3
(81.1)
26.1
(79)
26.0
(78.8)
25.6
(78.1)
24.3
(75.7)
21.6
(70.9)
18.6
(65.5)
23.7
(74.7)
Record low °C (°F)10.5
(50.9)
12.8
(55)
14.4
(57.9)
18.3
(64.9)
20.0
(68)
21.1
(70)
21.3
(70.3)
21.1
(70)
17.5
(63.5)
17.6
(63.7)
12.9
(55.2)
11.3
(52.3)
10.5
(50.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)11.1
(0.437)
10.5
(0.413)
13.0
(0.512)
26.2
(1.031)
70.5
(2.776)
117.0
(4.606)
133.3
(5.248)
163.6
(6.441)
191.1
(7.524)
258.1
(10.161)
115.5
(4.547)
8.8
(0.346)
1,118.7
(44.042)
Average rainy days0.50.50.51.23.06.48.79.39.98.72.70.652.0
Average relative humidity (%)71706971697176777874686771.8
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[30][31]
Source #2: NOAA (humidity 1971–1990)[32]

Demographics

As of 2011[update]census of India, Visakhapatnam had a population of 1,728,128, of which males were 873,599 and females were 854,529, – a sex ratio of 978 females per 1000 males. The population density was 18,480/km2 (47,900/sq mi). There were 164,129 children in the age group of 0–6 years, with 84,298 boys and 79,831 girls, – a sex ratio was 947 girls per 1000 boys. The average literacy rate stood at 81.79% with a total of 1,279,137 literates, of which 688,678 were males and 590,459 were fermales.[33][34] Visakhapatnam is ranked 122 in the list of fastest-growing cities in the world.[35] The total slum population covers 44.61% of the total population which implies 770,971 people reside in slums.[36]

The population crossed two million mark after expansion of the city limits and stands at 2,035,922.[1]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
187132,191—    
188130,291−5.9%
189134,487+13.9%
190140,892+18.6%
191143,413+6.2%
192144,711+3.0%
193157,303+28.2%
194170,243+22.6%
1951108,042+53.8%
1961211,190+95.5%
1971363,467+72.1%
1981603,630+66.1%
1991752,037+24.6%
20011,345,938+79.0%
20112,035,922+51.3%

Language and religion

Telugu is the most predominantly spoken language by the native speakers.[37][38] Two dialects of Telugu are spoken by the people, the common dialect and the Uttarandhra (North Eastern Andhra) dialect. The latter is mainly spoken by the people who originally belong to the districts of Vizianagaram and Srikakulam.[39] A cosmopolitan population of Visakhapatnam comprise Tamils,[40][41] Malayalis,[42][43] Sindhis[44] and Kannadigas,[45][46] and also Odias,[47] Bengalis and Bihari migrants from other regions of India.[48][49] There is also existence of Anglo-Indian community, regarded as the first cosmopolitans of the city.[50]

Hinduism is practised by the majority of its citizens, followed by Islam and Christianity. The area practised Buddhism for two millennia, as evidenced by the many Buddhist sangharamas in the outlying areas but the population of Buddhists has waned, with approximately 0.03% population in the entire city based on the recent census.[51]

Government and politics

Civic administration

Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation (GVMC) is the civic body that oversees the civic needs of the city.[52] It is one of the oldest municipalities in the state, established in 1858 as a Voluntary Municipal Association and upgraded to corporation in 1979, before getting Greater tag on 20 November 2005.[53] It has a jurisdictional area of 540 km2 (210 sq mi), which includes the merged municipalities of Gajuwaka, Anakapalle and Bheemunipatnam.[1][54] The present municipal commissioner of the city is M.Hari Narayanan.[55] Law and order in the city is dealt by Visakhapatnam City Police, equipped with a Police Commissionerate with Commissioner of Police as the head and with assisted by three deputy commissioners for different zones.[56]Visakhapatnam Urban Development Authority (VUDA) is an urban planning agency that covers the GVMC and its suburbs covering, three corporations, three municipalities, two nagar panchayats and 1170 villages from three districts of Srikakulam, Vizianagarm and Viskhapatnam.[57][54] The expanded area of the city, Visakhapatnam Metropolitan Region extends to 5,573 km2 (2,152 sq mi) with a population of 53,40,000 and is under the administration of Visakhapatnam Urban Development Authority.[2]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Visakhapatnam

Visakhapatnam is one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world,[58] which has a GDP of $43.5  billion.[59] For the FY 2015–16, the per capita income estimates of the city stood at ₹283816 and it tops among other cities in the state.[60] The fishing harbour is one of the oldest and largest in the city, which was established in 1926, provides livelihood for approximately 50,000 people.[61] The usual seafood exporting capacity of the harbour is 115,000 t (127,000 tons)[62] and during the FY 2015, it topped seafood exports in terms of value among other ports.[63]Visakhapatnam Port and Gangavaram Port are the two ports of the city and the former one topped charts which handled 60,000,000 t (66,000,000 tons) of cargo during the financial year 2016–17.[64] The Hindustan Shipyard undertakes building and repairing of Naval fleet and has future orders of ₹2,000 crore (US$310 million).[65]

The growth in the IT sector in the recent times boosting the local economy.[66] In 2016–17, the IT industry in Vizag witnessed an increase in its turnover which recorded as ₹5,400 crore (US$830 million) with 34,000 employees working in 350 firms,[67] in contrast to 2013–14 figures of ₹1,450 crore (US$220 million).[68]Sunrise Startup Village, an incubation centre;[69]Fintech Valley Tower for Financial Technology were also established.[70] There are many national and multi–national IT/ITes and banking firms such as Mahindra Satyam, Wipro, Kenexa, Infotech, IBM, Sutherland, and HSBC etc. Few more investments are in line like Conduent Inc, Lalith Ahuja's ANSR Consulting 1000 crore fintech facility in the city.[71] The Brandix India Apparel City is the largest textile park in the country and holds the record for employing more than 15,000 women employers at a single location.[72] The Jawaharlal Nehru Pharma City (JNPC) developed at Parawada near Visakhapatnam in 2,400 acres has major pharma companies like, Hospira, Mylan, Eisai, Reddy’s Lab, Aurobindo Pharma, Torrent pharma etc.[73][74][75]Andhra Pradesh Medtech Zone Limited, is the India's first Ultra Modern Medical Equipment Manufacturing & Testing Facility, open to Manufacturers & Innovators.[76]

The prevalence of ferroalloy plants is due to the availability of manganese ore near Visakhapatnam. Aluminium refineries such as Anrak Aluminium and Jindal Aluminium are developing because of the bauxite reserves around the city.[77] Visakhapatnam is a part of the Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR), proposed between Visakhapatnam and Kakinada. The PCPIR is expected to generate 1.2 million jobs and a projected investment of ₨34,30,000 million.[78]Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant of NTPC Limited is expanding from 1,000 to 2,000 MW at a cost of ₹50 billion (US$766 million). Hindujas has begun construction of a 1,070-MW thermal power plant in Visakhapatnam district at a cost of ₹70 billion (US$1 billion).[79] NTPC is establishing 4x1,000 MW imported coal-based thermal power plant in Visakhapatnam district in Andhra Pradesh, which will come up at an investment of Rs 20,000 crore. Approximately Rs 5 crore outlay is needed for generation of one megawatt thermal power.[80][81]

Cityscape

Neighbourhoods

Over the years, Visakhapatnam has turned from a fishing village into a commercial city with busy streets. Most notable areas of the city include Dwaraka Nagar, Gajuwaka, Gopalapatnam, Jagadamba Centre, Maddilapalem, Madhurawada, Seethammadhara etc.

Landmarks

Visakhapatnam is one of the main tourism destinations in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is famous for beaches, caves and the Eastern Ghats as well as wildlife sanctuaries. About 30% of the city is covered with Greenery.[82]

The landmarks of the city include Dolphin's NoseLighthouse, Kailasagiri, Beach Road, VUDA Park, Visakha Museum and Matsyadarsini (an aquarium). INS Kursura Submarine Museum and Anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft TU 142 aircraft museum opoosite to each other is the only of its kind in the world conceptualizing Hunted and Hunter of the wars.[83][84]Indira Gandhi Zoological Park in the city has variety of wildlife species. Erra Matti Dibbalu (Red sand dunes) are situated between Visakhapatnam and Bheemunipatnam are one of the geo-heritage sites in the country. This tourist spot is now protected and preserved as a heritage site.[85] Dr Ramanaidu Film Studio in 33 acres space off the Visakha-Bhimili beach road is one of the film shootings destination. Telugu Heritage museum on atop Kailasagiri was developed by World Telugu Federation and Visakhapatnam Urban Development Authority ,[86] Vuda City Central Park .[87] Adding one more feather to its cap visakhapatnam has got India's tallest musical fountain opened in the central park. Oscillating vertically at 360 degrees, the fountain dances to the tune of digital music in different colors.[88]

Beaches along the coastline of the Bay of Bengal are Ramakrishna Mission Beach, Rushikonda Beach and Mangamaripeta Beach. Others include Yarada, Bheemili, Lawson's Bay, Tenneti, Sagar Nagar and Gangavaram beaches.[89]Borra Caves are caves discovered by British geologist William King in 1807.[90]Tyda (an Eco tourism project), Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary under Andhra Pradesh Forest Department are wildlife conservation sites near the city.[84]

Culture

Poets, artists Some of the notable poets from the city include Sri Sri, Gollapudi Maruti Rao, Sirivennela Seetharama Sastry.

Religious worships

Some of the religious sites are also of great importance like ISKCON temple;[91]Simhachalam temple of Lord Narasimha 16 km (9.9 mi) north of the city,[92][93]Sri Kanaka Maha Lakshmi Temple. Recent archaeological excavations of Buddhist shrines revealed Buddhist dominance in this area and these are recognised as heritage sites that include Boudharamam, Saligudam, Sankaram and Devipuram etc.

Transport

Main article: Transport in Visakhapatnam

The city commuters prefer city buses and auto rickshaws as the primary mode of transport, followed by the two wheelers and cars.[94] Road and rail are preferred for long distance commuting and are supported by Dwaraka bus station and Visakhapatnam railway station respectively.[95][96] It also has sea and air travel infrastructure such as, Visakhapatnam Port[97] and Visakhapatnam Airport.[98]

The APSRTC Visakhapatnam Region operates city, district and inter-state bus services from Dwaraka bus station.[99] There are more than 600 city buses being run in over 150 routes, in addition to Bus Rapid Transit System in two corridors of Pendurthi and Simhachalam.[94]:21 A planned Integrated Bus Terminal Complex would be built at Maddilapalem.[100] Apart from buses, there are about 25,000 auto rickshaws plying on the city roads which provide intermediate public transport.[94]:22 The Visakhapatnam railway station is as an A1 station[101] with the highest gross revenue in the Waltair railway division.[102] It serves an average of 20,000–25,000 passengers daily and may rise up to 40,000 during festivals.[96] The country's largest Diesel Loco Shed with a capacity of 206.[103]Visakhapatnam Metro is a planned metro rail project whose first phase is expected to be completed by December 2018 with financial support from the Japan International Cooperation Agency.[104]

Vizag steel plant entrance
Visakhapatnam Oil Refinery
Panorama of Visakhapatanam Beach Road
Visakhapatnam Metro Express Highway Service at Kurmanapalem
Visakhapatnam railway station

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