Nowadays, with the development of modern technology, the world tends to be a global village. It is quite convenient to contact people from other countries by telephone, fax or on the internet. Therefore, firms get more opportunities to sell their products overseas. However, as we all know, different countries have their own unique cultures. Hofstede who is a pioneer of comparative intercultural research describes culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another” (Henk, Joseph Soeters and Peter Ester 2004,34). Owing to diverse company management, languages as well as customs, cultural conflict will arise from communication between people of different cultural backgrounds. This essay tries to present the main elements of cultural misunderstanding during cross cultural business and then find some effective ways to avoid or mitigate those problems.
Different cultures make the world diversified. However, unfortunately, it also causes some negative effects on international business, which can lead to misunderstanding, confusion even anger. It usually appears in following aspects:
1). Misunderstandings based on power distance: According to Gallois and Callan(1997,28 ), “the distance” between a manager and subordinate can be considered as to extent to which employees can agree with their bosses or managers. It has two different styles: high distance and low distance. High power distance culture is usually found in some oriental countries, especially in Japan, Korea and China. Superiors seem to be entitled to more privileges. They are the centre of the whole company, their status (based on age, experience, or position) gives them the right to tell others what to do, and subordinates always esteem the managers.
On the other hand, in western countries, an employee can have different opinions to his/her boss and can discuss problems with their manager face-to-face. Actually, deference of power in low power distance is based on knowledge and experience, rather than status or position alone (Gallois and Callan, 1997,28). Because of the different realization of power distance, conflict and misunderstanding must emerge when two or more who come from different power distance cultures work together. In this situation, managers of multinational companies must pay attention to the clashes and be aware of the difference of cultures. The manager should know how to let those employees work together harmoniously and cooperatively.
2). Misunderstandings based on language: As the medium of information, language is used to express ideas, thoughts, and beliefs. Different nations use different languages, so there will be loss or misunderstanding during communication. For instance, in some countries, people like using implicit words, which are hard for foreigners to understand. It will cause big problems in cross-cultural negotiations. Language-based misunderstandings will happen, even with two native speakers of the same language, but from different dialect groups or social classes, communicating, because of accent, slang or technical terms.
What’s more, according to Gallois and Callan (1997, 7), language is also associated with non-verbal communication, which includes gestures, body language, eye contact and some types of non-verbal behavior are used based on the user’s culture. Therefore, it is common that similar gestures will have different meanings in different countries. Thus, the non-verbal channel is another contributor of misunderstanding. For example, an Indian shaking his/her head means “yes” instead of “no”! In order to reduce language-based misunderstanding, overseas sellers should follow the “customer orientation” principle and do business in the customer’s language and communication style. In other words, it is essential to pay extra attention to the communication process, even if it takes more time.
3). Misunderstandings based on social rules. Social rules are defined as “shared expectations about the behavior that should and should not occur in specific social situations” (Gallois and Callan,1997,33). But the rules are different from one situation to another. Take punctuality as an example: we all know time is money, but when there is a conference, Germans usually arrive 5 minutes before the start and Spanish people will be late for 15 minutes late. However, in their mind they are both on time. Furthermore, when Western people converse with each other, the usual distances are between 0.5 and 1 meter. However, in China, the distance is much less, especially in a restaurant when people’s bodies will touch very closely. Some Westerners feel uncomfortable in that situation. In a word, to keep an open mind about other people’s social rules and respect for those rules is very necessary. “When in Rome, do as the Romans do”.
From what has been discussed before, cultural conflicts are inevitable during cross-cultural business, due to differences in company management, language, attitude toward times, social behavior, etc.. People are not all the same under the skin. As a professional business person, he/she should be willing to learn other nations’ cultures and keep an open mind, and adapt himself/herself to fit into the business environment in order to get the best achievement in business.
Gallois,C and V.Callan (1997) Communication and Culture. JOHN WILEY&SONS
Vinken,H, Joseph Soeters and Peter Ester(2004) Comparing Culture Dimensions of Culture in a Comparative Perspective. BRILL
The Content of Intercultural Communication http://www.ahtvu.ah.cn/jxcl/zhykch/1107/supplementary%20reading2htm 25/01/2006
Cultural Diversity impacts the workplace in a variety
of positive and negative ways. Examining how
communication is affected by this diversity.
Today's workforce is truly mixture of different races, ages, genders, ethnic groups, religions and lifestyles (Mor-Barak, 2005). It is the job of the management of the organisation to fit together different pieces of mosaic in a harmonious, coordinated way and utilising the abilities and talents of each employee to its maximum. If skilfully managed, diversity can bring a competitive advantage to an organisation. If not, however, the bottom line can be negatively affected and the work environment can become unwelcoming (Henderson, 2001). Many organisations have recognised that the workforce is changing and they are working to create a work environment in which diversity and difference are valued and in which employees can work to their fullest. They are dealing with the problems that arise when people in the workplace communicate. Businesses must be aware of the impact of cultural diversity on important business factors especially communication and the degree of the effect of cultural diversity on it (Henderson, 2001).
People and the organisation:
Today's workforce is made up of many types of people. Organisations can no longer assume that every employee has similar beliefs or expectations. Organizations exist to serve human needs. An organisation is only effective as the people who operate it. People are considered the most important resource in any organisation (Mor-Barak, 2005). They are the basic foundation of an organization and the basic unit of change within organisation. The human resource approach focuses on the interaction between people and the organization. If communication between employees is poor, organisation will suffer. When coordination and interaction within the organisation is good, both employees and business will benefit.
Culture is an important dimension of group diversity that influences communication. Culture is the integrated system of beliefs, values, behaviours and communication patterns that are shared by those socialized within the same social group. Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. It is also referred to multiculturalism within an organization (Konard et al. 2006). Obvious cultural differences exist between people, such as language, dress and traditions, there are also significant variations in the way societies organize themselves, in their shared conception of morality, and in the ways they interact with their environment (Henderson, 2001).
Diversity in the Workplace:
Workplace diversity refers to the division of the workforce into distinction categories that have a perceived commonality within a given cultural or national context and that impact potentially harmful or beneficial employment outcomes such as job opportunities, treatment in the workplace and promotion prospects, irrespective of job related skills and qualifications (Stockdale and Crosby, 2004). Diversity can be defined differently by different cultures and organisations. A view of business, organisation and human resource literature produced three types of definitions of diversity: Narrow category-based definition (e.g. gender, racial or ethnic differences); broad category-based definition (e.g. a long list of categories including such variables as marital status and education); and conceptual rule definition that is based on variety of perspectives, differences in perceptions and actions (Thiederman, 2008). Some of the distinction categories may either have a positive or negative impact on employment and job prospects in different countries (Albrecht, 2001). Against the backdrop of broad definitions, on the one hand, and the narrow ones on the other, generating a definition of workplace diversity that will be relevant and applicable in different cultures proves to be a challenge. Workplace diversity focused on the similarities and differences of the people that they bring to an organization. It is usually defined broadly to include dimensions which influence the identities and perspectives that employees have such as profession, education and geographic location. As a concept, diversity is considered to be inclusive of everyone (Albrecht, 2001). Diversity initiatives create the workplace environment and organizational culture by making differences work. It is about teaching and learning from others who are different, it is about dignity and respect for all, and about creating workplace environments and practices that encourage learning from others and capture the advantage of diverse perspectives. Most scholars agree that diversity in the workplace utilizes employee skills to the fullest and contributes to the overall growth and prosperity of the organisation. It is based on the idea identities should not be discarded or ignored, but instead, should be maintained and valued (Henderson, 2001).
Increasing cultural diversity is forcing organisations to learn and motivate people with a broader range of value systems. To succeed in managing workforce that is increasingly diverse and multinational, managers need knowledge about cultural differences and similarities among people from different backgrounds (Golembiewski, 2000). They also need to be sensitive to these differences that can contribute to their effectiveness in cross cultural communication. In today's global business world, a manager has to understand cultural differences and their meanings in business relations. The manager who manages diversity should understand that diversity includes every employee. It is a challenge to successfully apply skills, energy, and commitment of employees to make an organization better. It is of primary importance that the manager understands the cultural beliefs and values of the organisation for effectively managing diversity (Golembiewski, 2000). These beliefs and values group together to create an environment that employee perceive as supportive or not supportive of diversity. Within all organizations there are culturally supportive and non supportive people, policies, and informal structures. Managers should carefully plan and implement organisational systems and practices to manage employees so that the potential advantages of diversity are maximised and disadvantages minimized (Jackson, 1999). It should be the policy of the company not to engage in discrimination against or harassment of any person on the basis of race, colour, national origin, religion, sex, gender identity, pregnancy, physical or mental disability, ancestry, marital status, age, sexual orientation or citizenship. This policy apply to all employment practices, including recruitment, selection, promotion, transfer, merit increase, salary, training and development, demotion, and separation (Henderson, 2001).
The organisations need to understand and accept cultural and communication differences, show respect, empathise and be flexible to communication issues in the workforce environment. It should be knowledgeable about ethical issues and understand values, communicate decisions regarding these issues to employees and keep communication channels open for all employees to feedback information without fear and revenge. Organisation should adapt the policies that directly or indirectly affect the diversity issues (Griffin and Hirsch, 1998). It is important how the organisation addresses and responds to problems that arise from diversity. It must reflect its stance on diversity in its mission statement. If the mission statement articulates a clear and direct commitment to diversity, everyone who comes into contact with that mission statement will grow to understand and accept the importance of diversity. Organisations can also manage diversity through a variety of ongoing practices (Jackson, 1999).
Impacts of diversity on workplace environment:
Workplace diversity provides strengths as well as offer challenges to the organisation. Cultural diversity is meaningful. It helps employees to learn from each other, to understand each other's differences (Griffin and Hirsch, 1998). Cultural diversity affects the businesses in many ways including the staff recruitment/retention, management styles and decision-making processes, and relationships within organizations. Cultural diversity often improves and develops workplace by helping as learning experiences for employers as well as employees. When an organisation embrace diversity and realize its benefits, it can succeed and compete more effectively (Henderson, 2001). When it actively assess the handling of workplace diversity issues, develop and implement diversity plans, it can increase its adaptability. Different employees bring individual talents and experiences and suggest suggesting flexible ideas in adapting to ever changing markets. An organisation can globally provide service with a diverse collection of skills and experiences. Organisations that encourage workplace diversity in inspire all of their employees to perform to their highest ability. Different strategies are then executed; resulting in higher productivity, profit, and return on investment (Konard et al. 2006).
On the other hand, diversity issues costs money, time and efficiency. If not managed properly it can create problems. Some of the consequences can include unhealthy tensions between employees or with management; loss of business performance and productivity because of increased conflict; inability to attract and retain talented people of all kinds; complaints and legal actions; and inability to retain valuable employees, resulting in lost investments in recruitment and training (Stockdale and Crosby, 2004). Taking full advantage of the benefits of diversity in the workplace is not without its challenges. Perceptual, cultural and language barriers need to be overcome for diversity programs to succeed. Ineffective communication of key objectives results in confusion, lack of teamwork, and low morale. There are always employees who will refuse to accept the fact that the social and cultural makeup of their workplace is changing. The "we've always done it this way" mentality silences new ideas and inhibits progress (Albrecht, 2001).
Although cultural diversity presents a challenge, organisations should view it as an opportunity rather than a limitation. When managed properly, cultural diversity can provide competitive advantages for an organisation. An organisation that manages diversity properly can develop cost advantages over other organisations and are in much better position to attract the best personnel. Proper guidance and management of diversity can improve the level of creativity in an organisation (Henderson, 2001).
Diversity in the workplace is strategic force influencing communication (Samovar et al. 2008). Communication in its most basic form is defined as the use of symbols to convey meanings. Culture is the integrated system of beliefs, values, behaviours and communication patterns that are shared by those socialized within the same social group. When persons socialized in different cultures and co-cultures look from the same point in same direction, they often see different things, and these different perceptions shape their communication (Samovar et al. 2008). Being different from others in an organisation can adversely affect communication and coordination. People from different cultures bring different set of assumptions about appropriate ways to coordinate and communicate in an organisation. Understanding how to communicate effectively with people from other cultures has become integral to the work environment of many organisations (Samovar et al. 2009). Managers who manage diversity need to be sensitive to cultural differences that can contribute to the effectiveness in cross cultural communication. Cross cultural communication involves several potential barriers to communication that are related to the use of verbal and non-verbal methods to convey meanings that may or may not be the same in the cultures of origin of the participants (Samovar et al. 2008). Often the message that is communicated, maybe different from the one that was intended because of cultural barriers. The use of different languages often creates barrier to communication because one or both sides are not articulate as they could be in their native tongue. Linguistic diversity is an important aspect of global diversity. Managing a workforce that does not share a common language can present a major challenge to both employees and management (Cragon and Wright, 2008).
Factors effecting communication:
Cultural diversity can have a powerful effect on communication within the organisation. Problems occur between people of different cultures primarily because people tend to assume that their own cultural norms are the right ways to do things. They wrongly believe that the specific patterns of behaviour desired in their own culture are universally valued. They have stereotypes about other cultures that interfere with communication when people interact. Workplace diversity can lead to misunderstandings and miscommunications, but it also poses opportunities to improve both workers and organisations. Managers must be prepared to communicate effectively with workers of different cultural backgrounds. A diverse workforce poses various communication challenges to an organisation.
Misunderstandings, inaccuracies, inefficiencies and slowness are typical communication problems experienced by diverse groups. Communication breakdowns occur when members often assume that the other party understands the message when in fact they do not. People interpret information differently even when the same language is used. Therefore, the message sent is not always the message received. Differences in communication styles and non verbal communication can create problems. Communication problems due to diversity may become magnified because people are afraid or otherwise unwilling to discuss openly about the issues. Trust is an important factor that plays a significant role in intercultural, interracial and inter-gender communication. A lack of trust can result in miscommunication. Accent is another factor creating problems in communication as some people react negatively to different accents. It is even considered rude if someone does not speak in the official language. People make judgements and mental picture (stereotypes) about others based on the kinds of expression they use because of the region (regional jargon) from which they come. The fact that people have different experiences accounts for many of the problems that occur when they try to interact cross culturally. These experiences directly relate to ability to communicate. Cultural, racial and gender differences affect our experiences.
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